Productivity and Competitiveness of Garlic Production in Pasuquin, Ilocos Norte, Philippines

Mina, Ceptryl S., Salvador P. Catelo, and Carolyn D. Jimenez. 2021. "Productivity and Competitiveness of Garlic Production in Pasuquin, Ilocos Norte, Philippines." Asian Journal of Agriculture and Development 18(1): 50-63.


A total of 124 garlic farmers were selected and interviewed to evaluate the productivity and competitiveness of garlic farming in Pasuquin, Ilocos Norte,
Philippines. The Technical efficiency (TE) was estimated using a stochastic frontier analysis or SFA based on the Cobb-Douglas production functional form, while the competitiveness of local garlic production was determined based on the ratio between import parity price and domestic resource cost ratio. 

The mean TE was 81 percent while the estimated gamma value was 0.92. These values indicate that 92 percent of the variation in garlic output is due to inefficiency factors and that total garlic output can further be increased with efficient use of resources. The analysis further revealed that seed rate and insecticides were statistically significant production factors. The results also show that group membership, farm size, and distance to the farm-to-market road (FMR) were statistically significant. Inefficiency factors and distance to the FMR have positive relationships while group membership and farm size have negative relationships with the garlic output.

Price and cost ratios show that garlic from Pasuquin, Ilocos Norte could not yet compete with imported garlic from China in 2018. However, simulations show that if the Philippines can increase its national average by at least 20 percent (4.08 mt/ha), it can have a competitive advantage in garlic production. 

The results of the analyses highlight the need to revisit the output and input policies and programs of the government to increase the productivity and competitiveness of garlic farming in Ilocos Norte. These programs include investing in quality seed, joining farmers’ organizations, and providing better farming infrastructure.

More Details

Asian Journal of Agriculture and Development (AJAD)
1656-4383 (print);   2599-3879 (online)
Southeast Asian Regional Center for Graduate Study and Research in Agriculture (SEARCA)
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