The Livelihood Vulnerability to Climate Change of Two Different Farmer Communities in Tanggamus Region, Lampung Province, Indonesia
The study aimed to calculate the livelihood vulnerability of organic and non-organic rice farmers' households to climate change. The sample was determined by a census comprising 60 organic and 80 non-organic rice farmers who lived in Pematang Sawa Sub-district, Tanggamus Region, Lampung Province, Indonesia. The livelihood vulnerability index (LVI) was measured based on seven main indicators: natural disaster and climate variability, agriculture profile, food security, water security, food/rice consumption, educational attainment, and income. The results showed that organic rice farmers' households were more vulnerable in terms of natural disaster and climate variability, water security, food consumption, education, and income, while non-organic rice farmers' households were more vulnerable in terms of agriculture profile and food security. Using the LVI framework approach of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (LVI-IPCC), non-organic rice farmers’ households were found to be more vulnerable to climate change than organic rice farmers' households. To better observe the vulnerability of organic and non-organic rice farmers' households to climate change, future studies should be conducted in two distant locations (e.g., different regions or provinces) because different climate components could significantly influence the findings. Rice farmers' households could become less vulnerable by providing them with objective climate information that will encourage them to adopt the necessary climate change adaptation and mitigation strategies. Further support is needed in the form of resources aid programs, such as the provision of irrigation systems or pumping wells, as well as livestock aid to increase the farmers’ income.